Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination


The transfer of surface and intermediate water from the Pacific to Indian Ocean through the Indonesian passages (Indonesian Throughflow: ITF) strongly influences the heat and freshwater budgets of tropical water masses, in turn affecting global climate. Here, we use combined δ18O and Mg/Ca analyses of surface and thermocline planktonic foraminifers to estimate variations in sea surface temperature, salinity and mixed layer thickness over the last 140 ka. Comparison of water mass properties reveals a steeper thermocline temperature gradient in the Timor Strait than in the eastern Indian Ocean during glacials, implying a decrease in ITF cool thermocline outflow. A major freshening and cooling of thermocline waters occurred at c. 9.5 ka, when sea level rose above a critical threshold, allowing establishment of a shallow marine connection from the South China Sea to the Java Sea. Comparison of benthic δ13C profiles (c. 1800 to 3000 m water depth) suggests vigorous mixing of Indian Ocean and ITF outflow intermediate waters during interglacials. In contrast, deep and intermediate water masses became more stratified during glacials. Lower δ13C values at c. 3000 m water depth reflect a decrease in deepwater ventilation, probably related to slowdown of the global thermohaline circulation during glacials.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.

Figures & Tables





Citing Books via

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal