Indonesian Throughflow variability during the last 140 ka: the Timor Sea outflow
Ann Holbourn, Wolfgang Kuhnt, Jian Xu, 2011. "Indonesian Throughflow variability during the last 140 ka: the Timor Sea outflow", The SE Asian Gateway: History and Tectonics of the Australia-Asia Collision, R. Hall, M. A. Cottam, M. E. J. Wilson
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The transfer of surface and intermediate water from the Pacific to Indian Ocean through the Indonesian passages (Indonesian Throughflow: ITF) strongly influences the heat and freshwater budgets of tropical water masses, in turn affecting global climate. Here, we use combined δ18O and Mg/Ca analyses of surface and thermocline planktonic foraminifers to estimate variations in sea surface temperature, salinity and mixed layer thickness over the last 140 ka. Comparison of water mass properties reveals a steeper thermocline temperature gradient in the Timor Strait than in the eastern Indian Ocean during glacials, implying a decrease in ITF cool thermocline outflow. A major freshening and cooling of thermocline waters occurred at c. 9.5 ka, when sea level rose above a critical threshold, allowing establishment of a shallow marine connection from the South China Sea to the Java Sea. Comparison of benthic δ13C profiles (c. 1800 to 3000 m water depth) suggests vigorous mixing of Indian Ocean and ITF outflow intermediate waters during interglacials. In contrast, deep and intermediate water masses became more stratified during glacials. Lower δ13C values at c. 3000 m water depth reflect a decrease in deepwater ventilation, probably related to slowdown of the global thermohaline circulation during glacials.
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Collision between Australia and SE Asia began in the Early Miocene and reduced the former wide ocean between them to a complex passage which connects the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Today, the Indonesian Throughflow passes through this gateway and plays an important role in global thermohaline flow. The surrounding region contains the maximum global diversity for many marine and terrestrial organisms. Reconstruction of this geologically complex region is essential for understanding its role in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, climate impacts, and the origin of its biodiversity.
The papers in this volume discuss the Palaeozoic to Cenozoic geological background to Australia and SE Asia collision. They provide the background for accounts of the modern Indonesian Throughflow and oceanographic changes since the Neogene, and consider aspects of the region’s climate history.