Pre-Cenozoic sedimentary section and structure as reflected in the JavaSPANTM crustal-scale PSDM seismic survey, and its implications regarding the basement terranes in the East Java Sea
J. W. Granath, J. M. Christ, P. A. Emmet, M. G. Dinkelman, 2011. "Pre-Cenozoic sedimentary section and structure as reflected in the JavaSPANTM crustal-scale PSDM seismic survey, and its implications regarding the basement terranes in the East Java Sea", The SE Asian Gateway: History and Tectonics of the Australia-Asia Collision, R. Hall, M. A. Cottam, M. E. J. Wilson
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A new long-offset, long-record crustal-scale seismic survey of 9600 km called JavaSPAN was acquired in the Java Sea and Makassar Strait. The East Java Sea is underlain by continental basement with a prolonged multiphase history of deposition punctuated by extensional and compressional events. This East Java Terrane is a major component of SE Sundaland lying between the Meratus suture, the contemporary Java arc, and the west Sulawesi orogenic belt, but is poorly constrained on the north under the North Makassar Basin and in Kalimantan. A Precambrian to Permo-Triassic sedimentary section up to some 8.5 km in thickness overlies crystalline basement in a number of fault blocks and synformal structures below a strong angular unconformity. A thin overlap assemblage of Cretaceous to early Cenozoic sediments overlies that unconformity. Middle Eocene to Neogene clastic and carbonate rocks overlie another angular unconformity that marks the initiation of a well known history of Palaeogene extension, sag, and Neogene inversion. The East Java Terrane rifted from the Bonaparte-Arafura sector of northern Australia in the Jurassic and accreted onto a magmatic arc on the SW flank of what is now Kalimantan in the Cretaceous.
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Collision between Australia and SE Asia began in the Early Miocene and reduced the former wide ocean between them to a complex passage which connects the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Today, the Indonesian Throughflow passes through this gateway and plays an important role in global thermohaline flow. The surrounding region contains the maximum global diversity for many marine and terrestrial organisms. Reconstruction of this geologically complex region is essential for understanding its role in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, climate impacts, and the origin of its biodiversity.
The papers in this volume discuss the Palaeozoic to Cenozoic geological background to Australia and SE Asia collision. They provide the background for accounts of the modern Indonesian Throughflow and oceanographic changes since the Neogene, and consider aspects of the region’s climate history.