Modes of sediment delivery to the grounding line of a fast-flowing tidewater glacier: implications for ice-margin conditions and glacier dynamics
Ida Lønne, W. Nemec, 2011. "Modes of sediment delivery to the grounding line of a fast-flowing tidewater glacier: implications for ice-margin conditions and glacier dynamics", Ice-Marginal and Periglacial Processes and Sediments, I. P. Martini, H. M. French, A. PéRez Alberti
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The study focuses on the terminal moraine of a fast-flowing, temperate tidewater glacier that protruded in Oslofjorden trough, southern Norway, during one of the re-advances of the receding Fennoscandian Ice Sheet in the Younger Dryas time. Allostratigraphic mapping is used to reconstruct the moraine's morphodynamic development, showing how information on the dynamics of ancient glaciers can be derived from their grounding-line deposits. The Storsand moraine commenced its development in the latest phases of ice-margin advance and continued to grow during the stillstand phase, as long as the ice flux persisted. The thick moraine (>100 m) formed in a few decades, to be rapidly abandoned and later emerged by regional uplift. The study concludes that: (a) both meltwater and ice flow invariably supply sediment to the grounding line, and it is the varied preservation potential of ice-derived diamicton that results in misleading differences between moraines; (b) the glacier-front kinematics is asymmetrical with slow advances and rapid retreats; (c) no moraines can form during glacier retreat; (d) the front of an outlet glacier may stabilize while the adjacent ice margin is oscillating or virtually retreating; and (e) marine moraines are an important source of information about ancient ice margins and glacier dynamics.