Environmental limitations on agricultural development of the forest zone of the East European Plain (Russian Federation)
Olga N. Trapeznikova, 2011. "Environmental limitations on agricultural development of the forest zone of the East European Plain (Russian Federation)", Human Interactions with the Geosphere: The Geoarchaeological Perspective, L. Wilson
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Intensive agricultural development of the forest zone of the East European Plain started in the second part of the first millennium AD. Although the majority of the mediaeval population were peasants, archaeological study of ancient rural settlements is much less developed than that of ancient towns. The analysis of interrelationships between environmental conditions and the agricultural pattern across space, including the corresponding pattern of rural settlements, helps us to delimit the spatial frame in which it is possible to find rural settlements of different historical epochs, even if they have since disappeared. Five areas with different historical types of agricultural landscapes were revealed, based on their geological and climatic characteristics. Another analysis essential for archaeology deals with the age of contemporary agricultural landscapes and rural settlements along with the factors and laws that control their changes through time and space.