Geochemical characteristics of Miocene Fe-Cu–Pb–Zn granitoids associated mineralization in the Chichibu skarn deposit (central Japan): evidence for magmatic fluids generation coexisting with granitic melt
D. Ishiyama, M. Miyata, S. Shibata, H. Satoh, T. Mizuta, M. Fukuyama, M. Ogasawara, 2011. "Geochemical characteristics of Miocene Fe-Cu–Pb–Zn granitoids associated mineralization in the Chichibu skarn deposit (central Japan): evidence for magmatic fluids generation coexisting with granitic melt", Granite-Related Ore Deposits, A. N. Sial, J. S. Bettencourt, C. P. De Campos, V. P. Ferreira
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In this work we study mechanisms and timing of magmatic fluid generation during magma emplacement. Our focus is the Miocene calc-alkaline granitic rocks from the Chichibu mining area, in Japan. The granitoids consist of northern and southern Bodies and of the Daikoku Altered stocks. Cathodoluminescence observation of quartz phenocrysts from the northern body point towards magmatic resorption, which is thought to be caused by mixing between a more differentiated and a more primitive magma. The coexistence of vapour-rich two-phase and halite-bearing polyphase fluid inclusions in a single quartz crystal from the northern Body supports the possibility of pressure decrease during magma emplacement. The magmatic fluids that originated the Chichibu deposit are thought to have been generated by pressure release, related to magmatic differentiation when the SiO2-content reaches about 65 wt%. As a result, heavy metals, such as copper, gold and arsenic, coexisting with the silicate melt, were transported into the sedimentary strata through degassing of magmatic fluids. A later major fault system caused the intercalation between heavy-metal-free limestone and orebodies, as a secondary skarn-building process took place in the dominant limestone area.