Tourmaline nodules: products of devolatilization within the final evolutionary stage of granitic melt?
Dražen Balen, Igor Broska, 2011. "Tourmaline nodules: products of devolatilization within the final evolutionary stage of granitic melt?", Granite-Related Ore Deposits, A. N. Sial, J. S. Bettencourt, C. P. De Campos, V. P. Ferreira
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The origin of tourmaline nodules, and of their peculiar textures found in peripheral parts of the Moslavačka Gora (Croatia) Cretaceous peraluminous granite are connected with the separation of a late-stage boron-rich volatile fluid phase that exsolved from the crystallizing magma. Based on field, mineralogical and textural observations, tourmaline nodules were formed during the final stage of granite evolution when undersaturated granite magma intruded to shallow crustal horizons, become saturated and exsolved a fluid phase from residual melt as buoyant bubbles, or pockets. Calculated P–T conditions at emplacement level are c. 720 °C, 70–270 MPa, and water content in the melt up to 4.2 wt%.
Two distinct occurrence types of tourmalines have been distinguished: disseminated and nodular tourmalines. Disseminated tourmaline, crystallized during magmatic stage, is typical schorl while nodular tourmaline composition is shifted toward dravite. The increase of dravite in nodular tourmaline is attributed to mixing of the fluid phase from the residual melt with fluid from the wall rocks.
The pressure decrease and related cooling at shallow crustal levels can be considered as a major factor controlling fluid behaviour, formation of a volatile phase, and the crystallization path in the Moslavačka Gora granite body.
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This volume brings together a collection of papers that summarize current ideas and recent progress in the study of granite-related mineralization systems. They provide a combination of field, experimental and theoretical studies. Papers are grouped according to the main granite-related ore systems: granite-pegmatite, skarn and greisen-veins, porphyry, orogenic gold, intrusion-related, epithermal and porphyry-related gold and base metal, iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG), and special case studies. The studies provide a broad spread in terms of both space and time, highlighting granite-related ore deposits from Europe (Russia, Sweden, Croatia and Turkey), the Middle East (Iran), Asia (Japan and China) and South America (Brazil and Argentina) and spanning rocks from Palaeoproterozoic to Miocene in age.