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Abstract

Orientations of folds and small faults were measured in Turonian and Senonian rocks along the western limb of the Ramallah monocline in Israel, one of the structures comprising the Syrian Arc fold belt (SAFB). The minority of the folds, aligned NNE–SSW, are compatible with the WNW–ESE shortening trend of the SAFB, whereas the majority of them, aligned ENE–WSW, are not compatible with this shortening trend. Kinematic analysis of faults’ attitude indicates NNW–SSE shortening and ENE–WSW extension in accordance with the shortening of the majority of folds. Based on the folds trends, scale, and geometry, as well as the associated fault kinematics, we conclude that the folding mechanism is tectonic shortening and not intraformational folding due to landsliding or collapse owing to karst activity as previously postulated. We propose that a minority of the folds, compatible with the major trend of the Ramallah monocline, are parasitic small folds within the SAFB. The majority of the folds, which are not compatible with the SAFB, were formed owing to NNW–SSE shortening that has been associated with Miocene to Recent movement along the Dead Sea Transform.

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