Raman spectra of reduced carbonaceous matter as a tool for determining the provenance of marbles: examples of ‘graphitic’ marbles from Czech quarries
Aneta Šťastná, Jan Jehlička, Richard Přikryl, 2010. "Raman spectra of reduced carbonaceous matter as a tool for determining the provenance of marbles: examples of ‘graphitic’ marbles from Czech quarries", Natural Stone Resources for Historical Monuments, R Přikryl, Á Török
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This study reports the Raman data for reduced carbonaceous matter (CM) in crystalline marbles, related to a determination of their provenance. Raman microspectrometry was tested on ‘graphitic’ marbles formed under different metamorphic conditions (regional v. contact) with various geological ages, and with distinct types of CM from the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic). First, various modes of occurrence of CM were examined by optical microscopy (OM). The Raman results exhibited spectral variations of CM with different metamorphic grades and types. Several marble groups could be distinguished: (1) well-ordered CM/graphite of higher grade regional metamorphosed marbles; less graphitized metamorphosed organic matter (‘disordered’ CM); (2) low-grade regional metamorphosed rocks, and (3) contact metamorphosed marbles.
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Natural stone is considered to be a versatile, durable and aesthetically pleasing building material. From the beginning of civilization, important structures and monuments have been built from, or based on, natural stone. Until the end of the nineteenth century, the use of local stone resources was mostly in balance with the local environment. Strict environmental legislation has resulted in the closing of many long-standing quarries in industrialized countries, which has led to a shortage of traditional stone varieties. This has caused problems for restoration practice. Cheap, imported stone from less industrialized countries has become more widely available in recent years.
Some of the issues related to built stone conservation and restoration covered by this volume are: the establishment of inventories of possible replacement stones; understanding the decay mechanism and use of preventive conservation methods for slowing down decay processes; evaluation of the properties of natural stone; and assessing the risks of using replacement stones of different qualities.