Submarine volcanic stratigraphy and the Caribbean LIP's formational environment
John Diebold, 2009. "Submarine volcanic stratigraphy and the Caribbean LIP's formational environment", The Origin and Evolution of the Caribbean Plate, K. H. James, M. A. Lorente, J. L. Pindell
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In 1995, R/V Maurice Ewing cruise EW9501 collected 5200 km of high-quality multichannel reflection profiles and 104 wide angle sonobuoy profiles in the Venezuelan Basin and over the Beata Ridge. These data provide images of the entire Caribbean crust, from seafloor to Moho, and verify earlier models of a two-‘layer’ crust. The EW9501 data also image the internal structure of these layers, revealing previously unseen features. The upper crustal ‘layer’ is actually a complex sequence, whose stratigraphy is analysed to show that the thickest part of the Caribbean volcanic plateau was experiencing east–west compressional deformation during the last stages of its emplacement.
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The Origin and Evolution of the Caribbean Plate
This book considers the geology between North and South America. It contributes to debate about the area's evolution, particularly that of the Caribbean. Prevailing understanding is that the Caribbean formed in the Pacific and was engulfed between the Americas as the latter drifted west. Accordingly, the Caribbean Plate comprises internal, Jurassic–Cretaceous oceanic rocks, thickened into a Cretaceous hotspot/plume plateau, with obducted ophiolites and Cretaceous–Palaeogene, subduction-related, intra-oceanic volcanic arc and metamorphosed arc/continental rocks exposed on its margins. An alternative interpretation is that the Caribbean evolved in place. It consists largely of continental crust, extended in the Triassic–Jurassic, which subsided below thick Jurassic–Cretaceous carbonate rocks and flood basalts, and Cenozoic carbonate and clastic rocks. After uplift of ‘oceanic’ and volcanic arc rocks onto (continental) margins, the interior foundered in the Middle Eocene. Papers range from regional overviews and discussions of Caribbean origins to aspects of local geology arranged in a circum-Caribbean tour and ending in the interior. They address tectonics, structure, geochronology, seismicity, igneous and metamorphic petrology, metamorphism, geochemistry, stratigraphy and palaeontology.