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Book Chapter

Accreted oceanic terranes in Ecuador: Southern edge of the Caribbean Plate?

By
Etienne Jaillard
Etienne Jaillard
1
IRD-LMTG, Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées
,
14 av. Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse
,
France
2
LGCA, Maison des Géosciences
,
BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09
,
France
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Henriette Lapierre
Henriette Lapierre
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Martha Ordoñez
Martha Ordoñez
3
Petroproducción, CIG-Guayaquil
,
km 6,5 vía a la Costa, Guayaquil
,
Ecuador
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Jorge Toro Álava
Jorge Toro Álava
4
Petroproducción, CIG-Quito
,
av. 6 de Diciembre y G. Cañero, PO Box, 17-01-1006, Quito
,
Ecuador
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Andrea Amórtegui
Andrea Amórtegui
2
LGCA, Maison des Géosciences
,
BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09
,
France
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Jérémie Vanmelle
Jérémie Vanmelle
2
LGCA, Maison des Géosciences
,
BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09
,
France
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Published:
January 01, 2009

Abstract

The western part of Ecuador is made from several oceanic terranes, which comprise two oceanic plateaus, of Early (c. 120 Ma) and Late Cretaceous age (c. 90 Ma), respectively. The older oceanic plateau was accreted to the Andean margin in the Late Campanian (c. 75 Ma). Fragments of the Turonian–Coniacian plateau were accreted to the Ecuadorian margin in the Late Maastrichtian (c. 68 Ma, Guaranda terrane) and Late Paleocene (c. 58 Ma, Piñón–Naranjal terrane). The Guaranda terrane received either fine-grained oceanic sediments of Coniacian–Maastrichtian age, or island arc/back-arc volcanic suites of Middle Campanian–Middle Maastrichtian age. The Piñón–Naranjal terrane recorded a comparable history, completed in the Maastrichtian–Paleocene, either by pelagic cherts, or by island arc products (Macuchi arc). The Late Cretaceous plateau of Ecuador is interpreted as part of the Caribbean oceanic plateau (COP), because their evolutions are comparable. If so, the COP was not formed by the Galápagos hotspot, but on the Farallón oceanic plate, south of Ecuador and close to the South American margin. The COP belonged to the Farallón plate, until a subduction zone separated both plates in the Middle Campanian, giving way to a well-developed Mid Campanian–Mid Maastrichtian island arc. Accretion in the Late Maastrichtian triggered a change in the subduction system, and the development of a new arc system of Late Maastrichtian–Late Paleocene age, which crosscut the South America–COP plate boundary. The last accretion occurred in the Late Paleocene.

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Contents

Geological Society, London, Special Publications

The Origin and Evolution of the Caribbean Plate

K. H. James
K. H. James
Aberystwyth University, Wales, UK
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M. A. Lorente
M. A. Lorente
Central University of Venezuela, Venezuela
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J. L. Pindell
J. L. Pindell
Tectonic Analysis Ltd, West Sussex, UK
Rice University, Texas, USA
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Geological Society of London
Volume
328
ISBN electronic:
9781862395763
Publication date:
January 01, 2009

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