Caldera volcanism and rift structure in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand
The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) is an active continental volcanic arc/back-arc basin in central North Island, New Zealand. It is the youngest area of volcanic activity that extends southwards from the Coromandel Volcanic Zone (CVZ), where andesitic volcanism began c. 18 Ma and rhyolitic volcanism c. 10 Ma. It is an extensional basin (average c. 8 mm a−1) with numerous, predominantly normal (dip >60°) faults within the Taupo Rift, but with some strike-slip component. TVZ can be divided into three parts. In the north (Whakatane Graben – Bay of Plenty) and south (Tongariro volcanic centre) volcanism is predominantly andesitic, while in the central part it is predominantly rhyolitic. This central area comprises eight caldera centres; the oldest of which (Mangakino caldera; 1.62–0.91 Ma) may be transitional between CVZ and TVZ. Kapenga caldera (c. 700 ka) is completely buried by younger volcanics, but is probably a composite structure with most recent subsidence related to volcano-tectonic processes. Of the remaining five caldera centres, Rotorua, Ohakuri and Reporoa are all simple, sub-circular structures which collapsed c. 240 ka, and are each associated with one ignimbrirte outflow sheet (Mamaku, Ohakuri and Kaingaroa, respectively). Okataina and Taupo are caldera complexes with multiple ignimbrite eruptions and phases of collapse. The three simple calderas are extra-rift, occurring outside the main fault zone in the centre of the Taupo Rift system, while the two caldera complexes are both intra-rift. There is a close relationship between volcanism and structure in TVZ, and many of the structural caldera boundaries have rectangular geometry reflecting the fault pattern. Intrusion of high-alumina basalts as dykes, parallel to the fault trend, may have had a strong influence in causing rhyolitic eruptions in central TVZ.