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The plate tectonic and palaeogeographic history of the late Proterozoic is a tale of two supercontinents: Rodinia and Pannotia. Rodinia formed during the Grenville Event (c. 1100 Ma) and remained intact until its collision with the Congo continent (800–750 Ma). This collision closed the southern part of the Mozambique Seaway, and triggered the break-up of Rodinia. The Panthalassic Ocean opened as the supercontinent of Rodinia split into a northern half (East Gondwana, Cathyasia and Cimmeria) and a southern half (Laurentia, Amazonia–NW Africa, Baltica, and Siberia). Over the next 150 Ma, North Rodinia rotated counter-clockwise over the North Pole, while South Rodinia rotated clockwise across the South Pole. In the latest Precambrian (650–550 Ma), the three Neoproterozoic continents – North Rodinia, South Rodinia and the Congo continents – collided during the Pan-Africa Event forming the second Neoproterozoic supercontinent, Pannotia (Greater Gondwanaland). Pan-African mountain building and the fall in sea level associated with the assembly of Pannotia may have triggered the extreme Ice House conditions that characterize the middle and late Neoproterozoic. Although the palaeogeographic maps presented here do not prohibit a Snowball Earth, the mapped extent of Neoproterozoic ice sheets favour a bipolar Ice House World with a broad expanse of ocean at the equator. Soon after it was assembled (c. 560 Ma), Pannotia broke apart into the four principal Palaeozoic continents: Laurentia (North America), Baltica (northern Europe), Siberia and Gondwana. The amalgamation and subsequent break-up of Pannotia may have triggered the ‘Cambrian Explosion’. The first economically important accumulations of hydrocarbons are from Neoproterozoic sources. The two major source rocks of this age (Nepa of Siberia and Huqf of Oman) occur in association with massive Neoproterozoic evaporite deposits and in the warm equatorial–subtropical belt, within 30° of the equator.

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