Macroevolutionary turnover through the Ediacaran transition: ecological and biogeochemical implications
Published:January 01, 2009
Nicholas J. Butterfield, 2009. "Macroevolutionary turnover through the Ediacaran transition: ecological and biogeochemical implications", Global Neoproterozoic Petroleum Systems: The Emerging Potential in North Africa, J. Craig, J. Thurow, B. Thusu, A. Whitham, Y. Abutarruma
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Ecological and evolutionary principles are often context-dependent, particularly where the context is biologically defined. Organ-grade animals (eumetazoans) are particularly powerful contextual agents, with a unique capacity to drive escalatory co-evolution and build multi-tiered food-webs. The evolution of eumetazoans through the Ediacaran and early Cambrian fundamentally altered macroecological and macroevolutionary dynamics, including the structure and function of the marine carbon cycle. Pelagic eumetazoans can be held responsible for driving the evolution of relatively large eukaryotic phytoplankton, thereby shifting the system from a turbid, stratified, cyanobacteria-dominated stable state to the clear-water, well-oxygenated, algae-dominated condition typical of the Phanerozoic. Intermittent return to the pre-Ediacaran state during Phanerozoic extinctions and oceanic anoxic events suggests that the widespread anoxia detected in pre-Ediacaran deep-marine sequences may be a consequence of this alternate biological pump rather than a reflection of fundamentally lower levels of atmospheric oxygen. The transition between the pre- and post-Ediacaran states is also associated with the oldest commercially exploitable hydrocarbons, a possible by-product of invading animals and their top-down impact on the biological pump.
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Global Neoproterozoic Petroleum Systems: The Emerging Potential in North Africa
Neoproterozoic successions are major hydrocarbon producers around the world. In North Africa, large basins with significant surface outcrops and thick sedimentary fills are widespread. These basins are now emerging as potential sources of hydrocarbons and are attracting interest from geological researchers in academia and the oil and gas industry.
This volume focuses on recent developments in the understanding and correlation of North African basin fills and explores novel approaches to prospecting for source and reservoir rocks. The papers cover aspects of petroleum prospectivity and age-equivalent global petroleum systems, Neoproterozoic tectonics and palaeogeography, sequence stratigraphy, glacial events and global climatic models, faunal and floral evolution and the deposition of source rocks.
The broader aim of this volume is to compare major environmental change, the emergence of life, the global carbon cycle and the implications for hydrocarbon exploration of well-studied Neoproterozoic successions worldwide.