A case study of lateral spreading: the Precambrian Svecofennian Orogen
Annakaisa Korja, Paula Kosunen, Pekka Heikkinen, 2009. "A case study of lateral spreading: the Precambrian Svecofennian Orogen", Extending a Continent: Architecture, Rheology and Heat Budget, U. Ring, B. Wernicke
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We have studied the crustal structures of the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian (c. 1.9 Ga) Orogeny with the help of large scale seismic reflection surveys (FIRE 1–3), preliminary structural field work and geological and geophysical databases. The central part of the orogen is occupied by the Central Finland Granitoid Complex, which comprises two suites of granitoid rocks and associated mafic and volcanic rocks. The complex and the surrounding supracrustal belts are cut and deformed by numerous shear zones and faults; here divided into six groups. The most prominent reflections are usually shear zones or faults on outcrops. The granitoid complex is interpreted as a deep, lower-level section of an old core complex, where the younger granitoid intrusions form the basins and older granitoid intrusions and associated volcanic rocks form the horsts. The upper–middle crust detachment zone is exposed at the northeastern edge of the complex and middle crust is exposed in the migmatitic domes at northern and western margins.
The seismic reflection sections display a frozen image of orogenic thickening and lateral spreading. The decoupling of the upper, middle and lower crust during spreading resulted in the formation of layered superstructure–infrastructure of the crust.
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Extending a Continent: Architecture, Rheology and Heat Budget
Over the last three decades, there has been a growing appreciation of the role of extensional tectonics in convergent orogens. The opening contribution to this book, by Brian Wernicke, provides a flavour of how this ‘detachment era’ has changed our views on tectonometamorphic relationships in mountain belts. This introduction provides a historical account on how our views on large-scale tectonic contacts in mountain belts have changed over the years. Wernicke concludes that controversy still persists over the existence and mechanics of slip on shallowly dipping extensional detachments, although incontrovertible field evidence indicates that slip on shallowly dipping extensional faults occurs in nature. Other papers in the volume provide a mix of new, innovative and controversial ideas that may help to solve the mechanical paradox on slip on shallowly dipping extensional detachments and quantitative case studies from New Zealand, the Aegean extensional province, the Alps and Finland.