Application of INQUA Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale to recent earthquakes in Japan and Taiwan
Yoko Ota, Takashi Azuma, Yu-Nong Nina Lin, 2009. "Application of INQUA Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale to recent earthquakes in Japan and Taiwan", Palaeoseismology: Historical and Prehistorical Records of Earthquake Ground Effects for Seismic Hazard Assessment, K. Reicherter, A. M. Michetti, P. G. Silva
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The INQUA Environmental Seismic intensity scale (ESI 2007 scale) is a new seismic intensity scale proposed by the Subcommission on Palaeoseismology, INQUA, based on seismically induced ground effects. This intensity scale is expected to be useful for evaluation of detailed areal distribution of seismic intensity and also for the evaluation of intensity of palaeoearthquakes. We selected four great earthquakes to map ESI 2007 scale distribution: the 1995 Kobe; the 2004 Chuetsu, Japan; the 1935 Hsinchu-Taichung; and the 1999 Chichi, Taiwan. Proposed ESI 2007 scale maps from these areas are the mesh maps with a grid of about 1 km2, showing more detailed intensity patterns than those previously provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency and the Central Weather Bureau for the four areas. Different responses of ground effects to the earthquakes, depending on local differences of geological materials near the surface and morphological condition of each site, are more clearly expressed by the ESI 2007 scale map, because of the large number of observed sites by the evaluation of ESI 2007 scale. Calibration exercise also reveals, however, that the classification of ESI 2007 scale needs some improvement.
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Palaeoseismology: Historical and Prehistorical Records of Earthquake Ground Effects for Seismic Hazard Assessment
Given the tremendous toll in human lives and attendant economic losses, it is appropriate that scientists are working hard to understand better earthquakes, with the aim of forecasting and, ultimately, predicting them.
In the last decades increasing attention has been paid to the coseismic effects on the natural environment, creating a solid base of empirical data for the estimation of source parameters of strong earthquakes based on geological observations. The recently introduced INQUA scale (Environmental Seismic Intensity–ESI 2007 Scale) of macroseismic intensity clearly shows how the systematic study of earthquake surface faulting, coseismic liquefaction, tsunami deposits and other primary and secondary ground effects can be integrated with “traditional” seismological and tectonic information to provide a better understanding of the seismicity level of an area and the associated hazards. At the moment this is the only scientific means of equating the seismic records to the seismic cycle time-spans extending the seismic catalogues even to tens of thousands of years, improving future seismic hazard analyses.
This Special Publication covers some of the latest multidisciplinary work undertaken to achieve that aim. Eighteen papers from research groups from all continents address a wide range of topics related both to palaeoseismological studies and assessment of macroseismic intensity based only on the natural phenomena associated with an earthquake.