The Eo-Cimmerian (Late? Triassic) orogeny in North Iran
Andrea Zanchi, Stefano Zanchetta, Fabrizio Berra, Massimo Mattei, Eduardo Garzanti, Stewart Molyneux, Amir Nawab, Jafar Sabouri, 2009. "The Eo-Cimmerian (Late? Triassic) orogeny in North Iran", South Caspian to Central Iran Basins, M.-F. Brunet, M. Wilmsen, J. W. Granath
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The Eo-Cimmerian orogen results from the Late Triassic collision of Iran, a microplate of Gondwanan affinity, with the southern margin of Eurasia. The orogen is discontinuously exposed along the northern side of the Alborz Mountains of North Iran below the siliciclastic deposits of the Shemshak Group (Late Triassic–Jurassic). A preserved section of the external part of the belt crops out in the Neka Valley (eastern Alborz) south of Gorgan. Here the Mesozoic successions (Shemshak Group–Upper Cretaceous limestones) overlay a pre-Jurassic Eo-Cimmerian thrust stack with a sharp unconformity. The stack includes the Gorgan Schists, an Upper Ordovician–Lower Silurian low-grade metamorphic complex, overthrusted southward above a strongly deformed Late Palaeozoic–Middle Triassic succession belonging to north Iran. In the Talesh Mountains (western Alborz), the Shanderman Complex, previously interpreted as an ophiolitic remnant isolated along the Eo-Cimmerian suture, is considered an allochthonous nappe of deeply subducted continental crust. The new evidence for this is the occurrence of previously unknown eclogites dating to the Carboniferous, and probably related to the Variscan history of Transcaucasia. South of the Shanderman Complex, Upper Palaeozoic slates and carbonates occurring below the Lower Jurassic Shemshak Group also record the occurrence of an Eo-Cimmerian metamorphic event. Based on our new data, the Eo-Cimmerian structures exposed in the Alborz appear to be remnants of a collisional orogen consisting mainly of deformed continental crust where no ophiolites are preserved.
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This book combines interdisciplinary research results using structural geology, geophysics, sedimentology, stratigraphy, palaeontology, palaeomagnetism and subsidence modelling obtained through the MEBE (Middle East Basins Evolution) Programme and other groups in the South Caspian and Northern and Central Iran.
A great part of the volume is devoted to Northern Iran (Alborz, Binalud and Koppeh Dagh belts), dealing mainly with the Late Palaeozoic and the Mesozoic Eras. Two papers present subsidence models of the South Caspian Basin since the Jurassic and three papers focus on Central Iran.
The data and models in this compilation of papers present a detailed picture and a very comprehensive understanding of the Late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic evolution of the South Caspian and North Iran to Central Iran basins. Geodynamic evolution and sedimentation are mainly controlled by the closure of the Palaeo–Tethys due to collision of Eocimmerian blocks with south Laurasia, opening of the South Caspian Basin, and Neo–Tethys ocean closure associated with Arabia–Eurasia collision.