Insights from the Apennines metamorphic complexes and their bearing on the kinematics evolution of the orogen
Published:January 01, 2009
Gianluca Vignaroli, Claudio Faccenna, Federico Rossetti, Laurent Jolivet, 2009. "Insights from the Apennines metamorphic complexes and their bearing on the kinematics evolution of the orogen", Collision and Collapse at the Africa–Arabia–Eurasia Subduction Zone, D. J. J. Van Hinsbergen, M. A. Edwards, R. Govers
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The Apennine belt represents a typical orogenic segment of the western Mediterranean, characterized by the tectonic convergence between European and Africa plates after oceanic subduction. Both oceanic- and continent-derived metamorphic complexes, considered as the remnants of the subduction-exhumation cycle, crop out in the inner sectors of the Apennine belt, where extensional deformation has dominated since the Early Oligocene. We review the available structural, metamorphic and geochronological data coming from these metamorphic complexes in order to provide a kinematics reconstruction accounting for the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Apennines, from oceanic subduction to final extensional reworking. During the Eocene, oceanic rocks were progressively subducted down to eclogite-facies conditions following a subduction-type metamorphic gradient. The transition from oceanic- to continental-subduction was coeval with a transition from subduction-type to Barrovian-type metamorphic gradient. Continental collision, at the Eocene–Oligocene boundary, post-dated the syn-orogenic exhumation of HP-rocks and was synchronous with the onset of post-orogenic extension in the hinterland domains. Extensional deformation migrated to the east, following the forelandward migration of the thrust system at the trench. The concomitance of extension and compression is here related to fast rollback of the subducting plate and delamination of the lithospheric mantle below the subducted continental crust. Implications on how the subduction tectonics, syn-orogenic exhumation and post-orogenic extension could have controlled the circulation of HP-rocks in the developing Apennines are also discussed.
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Collision and Collapse at the Africa–Arabia–Eurasia Subduction Zone
The Mediterranean and northern Arabian regions provide a unique natural laboratory to constrain geodynamics associated with arc–continent and continent–continent collision and subsequent orogenic collapse by analysing regional and temporal distributions of the various elements in the geological archive. This book combines thirteen new contributions that highlight timing and distribution of the Cretaceous to Recent evolution of the Calabrian, Carpathian, Aegean and Anatolian segments of the Africa–Arabia–Eurasia subduction zone. These are subdivided into five papers documenting the timing and kinematics of Cretaceous arc–continent collision, and Eocene and Miocene continent–continent collision in Anatolia, with westward extrusion of Anatolia as a result. Eight papers provide an overview and new data from stratigraphy, structure, metamorphism and magmatism, covering the geological consequences of the largely Neogene collapse that characterizes the segments of interest, in response to late stage reorganization of the subduction zone, and the roll-back and break-off of (segments of) the subducting slab.