Shallow-conduit dynamics at Stromboli Volcano, Italy, imaged from waveform inversions
Published:January 01, 2008
Bernard Chouet, Phillip Dawson, Marcello Martini, 2008. "Shallow-conduit dynamics at Stromboli Volcano, Italy, imaged from waveform inversions", Fluid Motions in Volcanic Conduits: A Source of Seismic and Acoustic Signals, S. J. Lane, J. S. Gilbert
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Modelling of Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic data recorded during explosive activity at Stromboli in 1997 provides an image of the uppermost 1 km of its volcanic plumbing system. Two distinct dyke-like conduit structures are identified, each representative of explosive eruptions from two different vents located near the northern and southern perimeters of the summit crater. Observed volumetric changes in the dykes are viewed as the result of a piston-like action of the magma associated with the disruption of a gas slug transiting through discontinuities in the dyke apertures. Accompanying these volumetric source components are single vertical forces resulting from an exchange of linear momentum between the source and the Earth. In the dyke system underlying the northern vent, a primary disruption site is observed at an elevation near 440 m where a bifurcation in the conduit occurs. At a depth of 80 m below sea level, a sharp corner in the conduit marks another location where the elastic response of the solid to the action of the upper source induces pressure and momentum changes in the magma. In the conduit underlying the southern vent, the junction of two inclined dykes with a sub-vertical dyke at 520 m elevation is a primary site of gas slug disruption, and another conduit corner 280 m below sea level represents a coupling location between the elastic response of the solid and fluid motion.
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Fluid Motions in Volcanic Conduits: A Source of Seismic and Acoustic Signals
Volcanoes become active when fluids are in motion, and erupt when these fluids escape into the atmosphere. Volcanic fluids are a mixture of solid, liquid and gas. These mixtures result in a complex range of flow behaviour, especially during interaction with conduit geometry. These processes are not directly observable and must be inferred from interpretations of field observation and measurement. One of the outcomes of this complexity is the generation of pressure and force transients as high-density phases accelerate and decelerate during unsteady flow. These transients are one means of flexing the conduit wall, a process that manifests itself as ground motion and is detectable as volcano seismic signals. On eruption, volcanic fluids interact with the atmosphere and generate acoustic and thermal signals. In this Special Publication we present a series of papers based on field, numerical and experimental approaches that seek to establish links between geophysical signals and fluid motion in volcanic conduits.