Snake River Plain – Yellowstone silicic volcanism: implications for magma genesis and magma fluxes
William P. Leeman, Catherine Annen, Josef Dufek, 2008. "Snake River Plain – Yellowstone silicic volcanism: implications for magma genesis and magma fluxes", Dynamics of Crustal Magma Transfer, Storage and Differentiation, Catherine Annen, Georg F. Zellmer
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The origin of large-volume, high-temperature silicic volcanism associated with onset of the Snake River Plain – Yellowstone (SRPY) hotspot track is addressed based on evolution of the well-characterized Miocene Bruneau–Jarbidge (BJ) eruptive centre. Although O–Sr–Pb isotopic and bulk compositions of BJ rhyolites exhibit strong crustal affinity, including strong 18O-depletion, Nd isotopic data preclude wholesale melting of ancient basement rocks and implicate involvement of a juvenile component – possibly derived from contemporaneous basaltic magmas. Several lines of evidence, including limits on 18O-depletion of the rhyolite source rocks due to influx of meteoric/hydrothermal fluids, constrain rhyolite generation to depths shallower than mid-upper crust (<20 km depth). For crustal melting driven by basaltic intrusions, sustenance of temperatures exceeding 900 °C at such depths over the life of the BJ eruptive centre requires incremental intrusion of approximately 16 km of basalt into the crust. This minimum basaltic flux (c. 4 mm year−1) is about one-tenth that at Kilauea. Nevertheless, emplacement of such volumes of magma in the crust creates a serious room problem, requiring that the crust must undergo significant extensional deformation – seemingly exceeding present estimates of extensional strain for the SRPY province.
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Magmas are subject to a series of processes that lead to their differentiation during transfer through, and storage within, the Earth’s crust. The depths and mechanisms of differentiation, the crustal contribution to magma generation through wall-rock assimilation, the rates and timescales of magma generation, transfer and storage, and how these link to the thermal state of the crust are subject to vivid debate and controversy. This volume presents a collection of research articles that provide a balanced overview of the diverse approaches available to elucidate these topics, and includes both theoretical models and case studies. By integrating petrological, geochemical and geophysical approaches, it offers new insights to the subject of magmatic processes operating within the Earth’s crust, and reveals important links between subsurface processes and volcanism.