Dynamics of magma supply to Kīlauea volcano, Hawai‘i: integrating seismic, geodetic and eruption data
Thomas L. Wright, F. W. Klein, 2008. "Dynamics of magma supply to Kīlauea volcano, Hawai‘i: integrating seismic, geodetic and eruption data", Dynamics of Crustal Magma Transfer, Storage and Differentiation, Catherine Annen, Georg F. Zellmer
Download citation file:
We focus on movement of magma beneath Kīlauea from the long summit eruption in 1967–1968 through the first historical sustained eruption on the east rift zone (Mauna Ulu 1969–1974), ending with the occurrence of a magnitude 7.2 earthquake beneath Kīlauea's eastern south flank. Magma from the Hawai‘iian hot spot continuously moves upward to summit storage and drives seaward spreading of Kīlauea's south flank on a 10–12 km deep décollement. Spreading creates dilation in Kīlauea's rift zones and provides room to store magma at depths extending to the décollement surface. During the period of study three types of eruptions – normal (short-lived), episodic and sustained – and three types of intrusions – traditional (summit to rift), inflationary and slow – are classified. Rates of sustained eruption are governed by the geometry of the magmatic plumbing. Swarms of earthquakes beneath the south flank signal increased pressure from magma entering Kīlauea's adjacent rift zone. Magma supply rates are obtained by combining the volume of magma transferred to sites of eruption or intrusion with the volume opened by seaward spreading over the same increment of time. In our interpretation the varying character of eruptions and intrusions requires a gradual increase in magma supply rate throughout the period augmented by incremental increases in spreading rate. The three types of eruptions result from different combinations of magma supply and spreading rate.