Hydrofracturing-related sill and dyke emplacement at shallow crustal levels: the Eastern Elba Dyke Complex, Italy
Francesco Mazzarini, Giovanni Musumeci, 2008. "Hydrofracturing-related sill and dyke emplacement at shallow crustal levels: the Eastern Elba Dyke Complex, Italy", Structure and Emplacement of High-Level Magmatic Systems, K. Thomson, N. Petford
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An example of sheet-like intrusion emplacement at very shallow crustal levels on Elba Island, Italy, is described. The Eastern Elba Dyke Complex (EEDC) consists of decimetre- to metre-thick sheeted aplites emplaced within intensely folded low-grade metamorphic rocks. Field data indicate that sill and dyke emplacement was controlled by mechanical discontinuities, represented by fractures in the host rocks, and was strongly favoured by magma overpressure. The occurrence of angular fragments of host rocks in the dyke border zones and the branching of sills testify to hydraulic fracturing. Analysis of the spatial distribution and geometry of EEDC sills and dykes provides clues on fluid pressure conditions and the stress state at the time of magma emplacement, as well as on the depth of emplacement. The calculated stress ratio and driving pressure ratio were used to estimate a magma overpressure of 6–54 MPa at the time of emplacement of the EEDC at a depth of about 2 km.
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Structure and Emplacement of High-Level Magmatic Systems
There are continual rounds of annual conferences, special sessions and other symposia that provide ample opportunity for researchers to convene and discuss igneous processes. However, the origins of laccoliths and sills continue to inspire and confound geologists.
In one sense, this is surprising. After all, don’t we know all we need to know about these rocks by now? As testified by the diverse range of topics covered in this volume, the answer is clearly ‘no’.
This book contains contributions on physical geology, igneous petrology, volcanology, structural geology, crustal mechanics and geophysics that cover the entire gambit of geological processes associated with the shallow emplacement of magma. High-level intrusions in sedimentary basins can also act as hydrocarbon reservoirs and as sources for thermal maturation.
In drawing together a diversity of perspectives on the emplacement of sills, laccoliths and dykes we hope to advance further our understanding of their behaviour.