Hyaloclastites, peperites and soft-sediment deformation textures of a shallow subaqueous Miocene rhyolitic dome–cryptodome complex, Pálháza, Hungary
Károly Németh, Zoltán Pécskay, Ulrike Martin, Katalin Gméling, Ferenc Molnár, Shane J. Cronin, 2008. "Hyaloclastites, peperites and soft-sediment deformation textures of a shallow subaqueous Miocene rhyolitic dome–cryptodome complex, Pálháza, Hungary", Structure and Emplacement of High-Level Magmatic Systems, K. Thomson, N. Petford
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The NE Tokaj Mountains at Pálháza in NE Hungary are made up of a complex association of Miocene rhyolitic shallow intrusions, cryptodomes and endogenous lava domes emplaced into and onto soft, wet pelitic sediment in a shallow submarine environment. The intrusive–extrusive complex shows a range of interaction textures with the host muddy sediment, ranging from blocky peperites, formed on a 0.1 m-scale, through to irregular contacts closely resembling globular mega-peperites, on a >10 m-scale. The over 200 m-thick igneous succession is interpreted to result from the pulsatory growth of shallow cryptodomes through muddy saturated host sediment. The intrusions eventually breached the sedimentary cover to build up thick in situ hyaloclastite piles in the shallow subaqueous environment. The coherent rhyolitic cryptodome facies is surrounded by intrusive hyaloclastite in the contact zone to the pelitic host sediment. In the upper level of the complex, rhyolitic dome rock is capped and surrounded by hyaloclastite formed due to quench fragmentation upon contact of the lava surface with sea water.
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Structure and Emplacement of High-Level Magmatic Systems
There are continual rounds of annual conferences, special sessions and other symposia that provide ample opportunity for researchers to convene and discuss igneous processes. However, the origins of laccoliths and sills continue to inspire and confound geologists.
In one sense, this is surprising. After all, don’t we know all we need to know about these rocks by now? As testified by the diverse range of topics covered in this volume, the answer is clearly ‘no’.
This book contains contributions on physical geology, igneous petrology, volcanology, structural geology, crustal mechanics and geophysics that cover the entire gambit of geological processes associated with the shallow emplacement of magma. High-level intrusions in sedimentary basins can also act as hydrocarbon reservoirs and as sources for thermal maturation.
In drawing together a diversity of perspectives on the emplacement of sills, laccoliths and dykes we hope to advance further our understanding of their behaviour.