The first Triassic lungfish from South America (Santa Maria Formation, Paraná Basin) and its bearing on geological correlations within Pangaea
M. Richter, C. E. V. Toledo, 2008. "The first Triassic lungfish from South America (Santa Maria Formation, Paraná Basin) and its bearing on geological correlations within Pangaea", Fishes and the Break-up of Pangaea, L. Cavin, A. Longbottom, M. Richter
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The Triassic fish faunas of the Southern Hemisphere are only known from a few sedimentary basins and the most productive sites are those from the Karoo Supergroup, in South Africa and the Sydney Basin of Australia. A single lungfish tooth plate ascribed to Ptychoceratodus cf. philippsi was recovered from Late Triassic (Carnian) red beds of southern Brazil and is described herein. This find extends to South America the palaeogeographic distribution of the genus, which occurs in the Early Triassic of Australia and South Africa and the Middle/Late Triassic of Europe and Late Triassic of Madagascar and India. The presence of this dipnoan solely in the uppermost part of the Santa Maria Formation suggests that the migration of Ptychoceratodus towards the Paraná Basin began not before the late Induan/early Olenekian (late Early Triassic). At that time, more humid (monsoonal) conditions prevailed in what is now southern Brazil, compared to semi-arid/desert conditions that dominated the Late Permian and possibly the earliest Early Triassic (the latter presumably not represented in the Paraná Basin).
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This volume, in honour of Peter L. Forey, is about fishes as palaeobiogeographic indicators in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The last 250 million years in the history of Earth have witnessed the break-up of Pangaea, affecting the biogeography of organisms. Fishes occupy almost all freshwater and marine environments, making them a good tool to assess palaeogeographic models.
The volume begins with studies of Triassic chondrichthyans and lungfishes, with reflections on Triassic palaeogeography. Phylogeny and distribution of Late Jurassic neoselachians and basal teleosts are broached, and are followed by five papers about the Cretaceous, dealing with SE Asian sharks, South American ray-finned fishes and coelacanths, European characiforms, and global fish palaeogeography. Then six papers cover Tertiary subjects, such as bony tongues, eels, cypriniforms and coelacanths.
There is generally a good fit between fish phylogenies and the evolution of the palaeogeographical pattern, although a few discrepancies question details of current palaeogeographic models and/or some aspects of fish phylogeny.