Tertiary cooling and exhumation history in the Maramures area (internal eastern Carpathians, northern Romania): Thermochronology and structural data
H. R. Gröger, B. Fügenschuh, M. Tischler, S. M. Schmid, J. P. T. Foeken, 2008. "Tertiary cooling and exhumation history in the Maramures area (internal eastern Carpathians, northern Romania): Thermochronology and structural data", Tectonic Aspects of the Alpine-Dinaride-Carpathian System, S. Siegesmund, B. Fügenschuh, N. Froitzheim
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The Tertiary kinematic history of the Maramures area is constrained by integrating thermochronological (fission track and (U–Th)/He analysis) data with field-based structural investigations. This study focuses on the tectonic evolution of the northern rim of the Tisza–Dacia block during collision with the European margin. Cretaceous nappe stacking, related metamorphism as well as Late Cretaceous exhumation are evidenced by zircon fission track data. Subsequent Palaeogene to Early Miocene sedimentation led to burial heating and annealing of fission tracks in apatite. Final tectonic uplift was initiated during the convergence of Tisza–Dacia with the European margin, associated with transpressional deformation (16 to 12 Ma). This led to Mid-Miocene exhumation, recorded by apatite fission track cooling ages in the western part of the study area. Transtension between 12 and 10 Ma caused brittle deformation along E–W trending strike-slip faults and SW–NE trending normal faults, delimiting blocks that were tilted towards the SW. This fragmentation of the crust led to enhanced exhumation at rates of 1 mm/a in the central part of the study area, as is documented by Middle to Late Miocene cooling ages (13 to 7 Ma). The outside estimate for the total amount of exhumation since Middle Miocene times is 7 km.
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The Alps, Carpathians and Dinarides form a complex, highly curved and strongly coupled orogenic system. Motions of the European and Adriatic plates gave birth to a number of ‘oceans’ and microplates that led to several distinct stages of collision. Although the Alps serve as a classical example of collisional orogens, it becomes clearer that substantial questions on their evolution can only be answered in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Our understanding of the geodynamic evolution of the Alpine-Dinaride-Carpathian System has substantially improved and will continue to develop; this is thanks to collaboration between eastern and western Europe, but also due to the application of new methods and the launch of research initiatives. The largely field-based contributions investigate the following subjects: pre-Alpine heritage and Alpine reactivation; Mesozoic palaeogeography and Alpine subduction and collision processes; extrusion tectonics from the Eastern Alps to the Carpathians and the Pannonian Basin; orogen-parallel and orogen-perpendicular extension; record of orogeny in foreland basins; tectonometamorphic evolution; and relations between the Alps, Apennines and Corsica.