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Provenance studies on metasedimentary rocks of the Baixo Araguaia Supergroup of the Brasiliano Araguaia Belt, central Brazil, yield 207Pb/206Pb zircon evaporation ages for detrital zircons from quartzites concentrated around 1000–1200 Ma and 2800–2900 Ma; Sm–Nd TDM model ages of schists and phyllites scatter around 1600–1700 Ma. Facies analysis of low-grade metasedimentary rocks from drill cores suggests a sedimentary environment of basin floor and lower- to upper-slope turbidites. Nearby sources are indicated by the textural and mineralogical immaturity; together with structural geological data indicating tectonic transport of the supracrustal pile towards the NW, this suggests probable provenance from the southeastern portion of the Araguaia Belt and not from the Amazonian Craton as usually believed. The Goiás Massif, Goiás Magmatic Arc, São Francisco Craton and Paranapanema block are considered to be the best candidates. They may have formed a larger continental mass during West Gondwana amalgamation, prior to their collision with the Amazonian Craton to form the Araguaia Belt. Final timing of this collision is constrained by c. 550 Ma syntectonic granites. Similar ages for high-grade gneisses in the Rokelide Belt suggest coeval collision and coetaneous metamorphism of the Araguaia and Rokelide belts, but more geological and geophysical data are required for a decisive correlation between these belts.

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