Geology of the northern Borborema Province, NE Brazil and its correlation with Nigeria, NW Africa
M. H. Arthaud, R. Caby, R. A. Fuck, E. L. Dantas, C. V. Parente, 2008. "Geology of the northern Borborema Province, NE Brazil and its correlation with Nigeria, NW Africa", West Gondwana: Pre-Cenozoic Correlations Across the South Atlantic Region, R. J. Pankhurst, R. A. J. Trouw, B. B. de Brito Neves, M. J. de Wit
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The Borborema and Benin–Nigeria provinces of NE Brazil and NW Africa, respectively, are key areas in the amalgamation of West Gondwana by continental collision during the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenies. Both are underlain by complex basement: Nigeria has c. 3.05 Ga Archaean crust but no known Palaeoproterozoic rocks >2.0 Ga; in NE Brazil, 2.6–3.5 Ga Archaean rocks form small cores within Palaeoproterozoic gneiss terrains affected by plutonism at c. 2.17 Ga. Both regions exhibit Late Palaeoproterozoic (c. 1.8 Ga) rift-related magmatism and metasedimentary sequences overlying the basement. The Seridó Group of NE Brazil (<0.65 Ga) is similar to the Igarra Sequence in SW Nigeria. The Ceará Group, which may date back to c. 0.85 Ga, is a passive margin deposit on crust thinned during initiation of an oceanic domain. In both provinces, basement and sedimentary cover were involved in tangential tectonics that resulted in crust-thickening by nappe-stacking associated with closure of this ocean. Frontal collision between c. 0.66 and 0.60 Ga later evolved to an oblique collision, generating north–south continental strike-slip shear zones at c. 0.59 Ga. In NE Brazil, the main Pan-African suture is probably buried beneath the Parnaíba Basin. The Transbrasiliano Lineament, interpreted as the prolongation of the Kandi–4°50 Lineament in Hoggar, may represent a cryptic suture.
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West Gondwana: Pre-Cenozoic Correlations Across the South Atlantic Region
Some 75 years after the visionary work of Wegener and du Toit, Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic geological correlations between South America and Africa are re-examined in the light of plate tectonics and modern geological investigation (structural and metamorphic studies, stratigraphic logging, geochemistry, geochronology and palaeomagnetism). The book presents both reviews and new research relating to the shared Gondwana origins of countries facing each other across the South Atlantic Ocean, especially Brazil, Argentina, Cameroon, Nigeria, Angola, Namibia and South Africa. This is the first comprehensive treatment to be readily available in book form. It covers the common elements of cratonic areas pre-dating Gondwana, and how they came together in late Precambrian and Cambrian times with the formation of the Pan-African/Brasiliano orogenic belts (Dom Feliciano, Brasília, Ribeira, Damara, Gariep, Kaoko, etc.). The subsequent shared Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary record (Karoo system) prior to Gondwana break-up is also reviewed.