Heterogeneous metasomatism in cumulate xenoliths from the Spanish Central System: Implications for percolative fractional crystallization of lamprophyric melts
D. Orejana, C. Villaseca, 2008. "Heterogeneous metasomatism in cumulate xenoliths from the Spanish Central System: Implications for percolative fractional crystallization of lamprophyric melts", Metasomatism in Oceanic and Continental Lithospheric Mantle, M. Coltorti, M. Grégoire
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The alkaline lamprophyres and diabases from the Spanish Central System carry a heterogeneous suite of xenoliths including a group of highly altered ultramafic pyroxenites that contain Cr–Mg-rich high-T hydrous minerals (Ti-phlogopite and pargasitic to kaersutitic amphibole), indicative of modal metasomatism. The trace element mineral compositions of these xenoliths show three patterns: type A xenoliths, with light rare earth element enriched clinopyroxenes with high field strength element (HFSE) negative anomalies; type B xenoliths, with clinopyroxenes and amphiboles with high incompatible trace element contents (large ion lithophile elements (LILE), HFSE and REE); type C xenoliths, with relatively REE- and HFSE-poor clinopyroxenes and amphiboles. These metasomatic signatures suggest the involvement of three different metasomatic agents: carbonate, silicate and hydrous fluids or melts, respectively. These agents could have been derived from the progressive differentiation of a CO2–H2O-rich highly alkaline magma, genetically related to the Late Permian alkaline magmatism. Because of the original sub-alkaline nature of the pyroxenite xenoliths, they might have been formed originally as pyroxene-rich cumulates associated with underplated Hercynian calc-alkaline basic magmas. Metasomatism as a result of the infiltration of alkaline magmas within these cumulates might explain the relatively high radiogenic Nd composition of the altered ultramafic xenoliths.