Heterogeneous metasomatism in cumulate xenoliths from the Spanish Central System: Implications for percolative fractional crystallization of lamprophyric melts
D. Orejana, C. Villaseca, 2008. "Heterogeneous metasomatism in cumulate xenoliths from the Spanish Central System: Implications for percolative fractional crystallization of lamprophyric melts", Metasomatism in Oceanic and Continental Lithospheric Mantle, M. Coltorti, M. Grégoire
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The alkaline lamprophyres and diabases from the Spanish Central System carry a heterogeneous suite of xenoliths including a group of highly altered ultramafic pyroxenites that contain Cr–Mg-rich high-T hydrous minerals (Ti-phlogopite and pargasitic to kaersutitic amphibole), indicative of modal metasomatism. The trace element mineral compositions of these xenoliths show three patterns: type A xenoliths, with light rare earth element enriched clinopyroxenes with high field strength element (HFSE) negative anomalies; type B xenoliths, with clinopyroxenes and amphiboles with high incompatible trace element contents (large ion lithophile elements (LILE), HFSE and REE); type C xenoliths, with relatively REE- and HFSE-poor clinopyroxenes and amphiboles. These metasomatic signatures suggest the involvement of three different metasomatic agents: carbonate, silicate and hydrous fluids or melts, respectively. These agents could have been derived from the progressive differentiation of a CO2–H2O-rich highly alkaline magma, genetically related to the Late Permian alkaline magmatism. Because of the original sub-alkaline nature of the pyroxenite xenoliths, they might have been formed originally as pyroxene-rich cumulates associated with underplated Hercynian calc-alkaline basic magmas. Metasomatism as a result of the infiltration of alkaline magmas within these cumulates might explain the relatively high radiogenic Nd composition of the altered ultramafic xenoliths.
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Twenty years have passed since Menzies & Hawkesworth extended the concept of metasomatism to mantle processes. The aim of this book is to gather together progress made on this topic since then. Most of the 14 papers reported in the volume rely on in situ major and trace element analyses of minerals and glasses in mantle xenoliths, and deal with different kinds of metasomatic agents at variable fluid/rock ratios in tectonic settings as different as intra-plate, mid-ocean ridge (ophiolites) and supra-subduction. The book contributes to the wide debate on the nature of the fluids migrating into the mantle wedge, as well as on the different residential times of the subduction signature. In addition papers on intra-plate settings deal with the problem of relating various metasomatic signatures to one single metasomatic event through an infiltration-reaction process.