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A suite of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene–Quaternary volcanic province of Jabel El Arab (Syria) is dominated by spinel±amphibole harzburgites, with rare lherzolites and wehrlites that were equilibrated at temperatures of 900–1100 °C. The major elements of pristine minerals and trace element compositions of clinopyroxene and amphibole indicate that the lithospheric mantle experienced various degrees of melt extraction (olivine Mg-number=89.4–91.8, spinel Cr-number=10.4–46.4), followed by a multistage metasomatic history. The primary clinopyroxene has variable and high Mg-number (89.1–93.6) and highly variable major element concentrations (Al2O3 2.7–7.6 wt%, Na2O 0.5–2.5 wt% and Cr2O3...

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