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Abstract

The Middle Miocene (Badenian) evaporites have formed within more or less restricted basins, occupying the Carpathian Foredeep and inner depressions in the East Slovakian Basin of the Carpathians. Their deposition coincided with the increased tectonic activity in the Carpathians, evidenced by volcanic eruptions (widespread volcaniclastics) and frequent earthquakes. These phenomena apparently initiated landslides, submarine slumps and turbidity currents which formed deposits characterized by rapid facies changes and relatively limited lateral continuity. The clastic–evaporitic deposition in the Zbudza area (East Slovakian Basin) was controlled by frequent tectonic and seismic phenomena and high continental clastic supply that produced repeated slump sediments with dominant proximal mass flows and distal flows and diverse salt types (salt/clay rhythmites, finer halite–arenites, coarse halite–rudites). These zones are separated by primary salt units (halite) precipitated in situ from bottom brines during calm periods. The observed cyclicity (I–V cycles) reflects varied tectonic activity of the basin margins, that mechanically remobilized the sediments from marginal salt pans, flats and adjacent uplifts, and could be correlable with cycles in the Wieliczka Formation from Carpathian Foredeep.

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