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Maria Ogilvie Gordon was one of the most prolific researchers of the later 19th century. Born and bred in Scotland she was the first woman to obtain a DSc from the University of London and a PhD from Munich University. Much of her research was in the Tyrol, in the high Alps between Austria and Italy. By 1900 she had published over 19 papers, many of them in German. However, it was not until later in life that she received recognition for her work. This paper explores her background, context and the work she undertook, and the contribution she made to the advancement of structural geology and palaeontology in the Alps.

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