Carlos Macellari, 1984. "Late Tertiary tectonic history of the Táchira Depression, southwestern Venezuelan Andes", The Caribbean-South American Plate Boundary and Regional Tectonics, William E. Bonini, Robert B. Hargraves, Reginald Shagam
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New field observations in the Táchira Depression indicate the presence of conspicuous thrust faults that were previously mapped as normal faults. This new information, combined with the sedimentological study of a Miocene-Pliocene fluvial sequence (La Copé Formation), indicates a succession of late Cenozoic tectonic events in the area. During late Oligocene and up to middle(?) Pliocene time, regional compressive stress oriented at 120° produced two sets of superimposed folds and caused thrust faulting toward the northwest. During the middle(?) to late Pliocene, compressive stresses changed to 040°, producing low-angle thrust faulting toward the northeast. This latter stress direction was the result of the relative southwest movement of the Venezuelan Andes toward the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. After thrusting, normal faulting occurred in the area, probably simultaneously with the final uplift of the nearby Andes.