Karst processes and slope instability: some investigations in the carbonate Apennine of Campania (southern Italy)
Published:January 01, 2007
A. Santo, S. Del Prete, G. Di Crescenzo, M. Rotella, 2007. "Karst processes and slope instability: some investigations in the carbonate Apennine of Campania (southern Italy)", Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards in Karst Areas: Recognition, Analysis and Mitigation, M. Parise, J. Gunn
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Some investigations carried out in the Campania Region (southern Italy) are shown concerning instability phenomena, the development of which is strongly influenced by karst. The widespread presence of carbonate massifs close to important urban centres with dense road networks creates high-risk situations in many settings of this region.
Such phenomena can have very different dimensions, origin and geomorphological development, and can be traced back to the action of hypogean and epigean karst and to complex interactions with other erosional processes.
In particular, among the hypogean forms, we have analysed collapse sinkholes that have developed on carbonate slopes, especially along fault lines where there are aquifers and ascent of mineralized fluids, and which are sometimes connected to strong seismic events.
Among the forms connected to epikarst processes, the origin of pinnacles has been investigated. They are isolated rock pillars, whose origin depends on a particular interaction between the geostructural characteristics of the masses and the process of karstic dissolution.
Moreover, a wide variety of morphologies exist that are related to the interaction between epigean and hypogean karst and other typologies of erosional processes. Among these one group is represented by caves on carbonate slopes developed in cataclastic zones, where a slow karstic process leads to the formation of upwards caves, with dimensions of some decametres, and consequently to the high production of debris downhill. Similarly, this process has been observed along slopes set on talus. Finally, the complex combination of the karstic phenomenon with the erosional wave action forms both caves and natural rock arcs along the coasts.
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Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards in Karst Areas: Recognition, Analysis and Mitigation
The book presents an overview of the main hazards affecting karst, including collapse and subsidence phenomena, hydrological hazards and human-induced geohazards. Consideration is also given to the problems of geohazard management in karst. The geological and hydrological properties of karst terrains make them among the most fragile in the world and pose serious problems for land managers. Sustainable development in these terrains requires efforts to limit geohazards of anthropogenic origin and to recognize and mitigate against those of natural origin. Aimed at providing the reader with worldwide case studies, the contributions cover a range of geological and morphological settings. Geographically, the fourteen papers discuss very different karst areas, from North America, the Caribbean and Asia to several karst areas in Europe, including the British Isles, Spain, France and Italy.