Modelling of the calcareous stone sulphation in polluted atmosphere after exposure in the field
Published:January 01, 2007
R.-A. Lefèvre, A. Ionescu, P. Ausset, A. Chabas, F. Girardet, F. Vince, 2007. "Modelling of the calcareous stone sulphation in polluted atmosphere after exposure in the field", Building Stone Decay: From Diagnosis to Conservation, R. Přikryl, B. J. Smith
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Parisian Lutetian and Val-de-Loire Turonian Richemont limestone tablets were exposed, sheltered and unsheltered from rain, for up to 3 years in Paris and Tours, respectively. Sulphur concentrations below the stone surfaces were measured from powders obtained by milling the stone in successive steps of 0.1 mm. In tablets exposed to rain, measured sulphur concentration remains equal to the stone background concentration, implying that the sulphur deposited between rain events is leached by the next event. In contrast, in tablets sheltered from rain, the sulphur concentration in the first layer below the stone surface increases non-linearly with time. Sulphation does not, however, penetrate more than 0.2 mm. A sigmoidal Hill curve provides a good fit with changes in measured sulphur concentration over time within the first layer of each sheltered stone. This model reveals a cumulative phenomenon of sulphation, characterized by a saturation level that obstructs deeper penetration of sulphur within the stone. The model shows the same type of time evolution of sulphation for both stones, but with different coefficients; these coefficients are related to the atmospheric environment of exposure and to the different intrinsic properties of each stone.
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Building Stone Decay: From Diagnosis to Conservation
Stone buildings and monuments from the cultural centres of many of the world's urban areas. Frequently these areas are prone to high levels of atmospheric pollution that promote a variety of aggressive stone decay processes. Because of this, stone decay is now widely recognized as a severe threat to much of our cultural heritage. If this threat is to be successfully addressed it is essential that the symptoms of decay are clearly identified, that appropriate stone properties are accurately characterized and that decay processes are precisely identified. It is undoubtedly the case that successful conservation has to be underpinned by a comprehensive understanding of the causes of decay and the factors that control them. The accomplishment of these demanding goals requires an interdisciplinary approach based on co-operation between geologists, environmental scientists, chemists, material scientists, civil engineers, restorers and architects. In pursuit of this collaboration, this volume aims to strengthen the knowledge base dealing with the causes, consequences, prevention and solution of stone decay problems.