Stone decay induced by fire on historic buildings: the case of the cloister of Lisbon Cathedral (Portugal)
Published:January 01, 2007
A. Dionísio, 2007. "Stone decay induced by fire on historic buildings: the case of the cloister of Lisbon Cathedral (Portugal)", Building Stone Decay: From Diagnosis to Conservation, R. Přikryl, B. J. Smith
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Lisbon Cathedral, built in Late Romanesque style, is one of the most ancient Portuguese monuments. Its cloister was severely damaged by a fire that occurred in 1755 right after an earthquake. The aim of this investigation is to study stone thermal damage through the application of in situ and laboratory techniques. With this study it is possible to identify and characterize (chemically and mineralogically) the main thermal decay forms. Special attention is given to colour modification and granular disintegration. Through the application of an indirect ultrasound method it is verified that only a small number of stone blocks are relatively sound (11%). In terms of chromatic alteration, two factors are considered to explain heat-induced colour modification: the transformation of goethite into hematite and an increase in hematite single crystalline domains. It is also established that the most probable high-temperature range to which the cloister stones were subjected during the fire was 300–350 °C.
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Building Stone Decay: From Diagnosis to Conservation
Stone buildings and monuments from the cultural centres of many of the world's urban areas. Frequently these areas are prone to high levels of atmospheric pollution that promote a variety of aggressive stone decay processes. Because of this, stone decay is now widely recognized as a severe threat to much of our cultural heritage. If this threat is to be successfully addressed it is essential that the symptoms of decay are clearly identified, that appropriate stone properties are accurately characterized and that decay processes are precisely identified. It is undoubtedly the case that successful conservation has to be underpinned by a comprehensive understanding of the causes of decay and the factors that control them. The accomplishment of these demanding goals requires an interdisciplinary approach based on co-operation between geologists, environmental scientists, chemists, material scientists, civil engineers, restorers and architects. In pursuit of this collaboration, this volume aims to strengthen the knowledge base dealing with the causes, consequences, prevention and solution of stone decay problems.