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The historic treatment of stonework has often been linked to the artificial application of patinas, mainly for aesthetic and protective reasons. Increasingly, however, researchers have identified a possible combined origin for patinas that has linked natural, biological processes to those associated with an artificial, man-made origin. This suggests that, although coatings may have been initially applied on purpose, they transform over time with the aid of micro-organisms and other chemical interactions. The original mixture applied to create a patina could include lime and/or gypsum, water, natural pigments and organic additives. However, their present-day mineralogy is varied and includes a...

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