Rapid non-contacting resistivity logging of core
P. D. Jackson, M. A. Lovell, J. A. Roberts, P. J. Schultheiss, D. Gunn, R. C. Flint, A. Wood, R. Holmes, T. Frederichs, 2006. "Rapid non-contacting resistivity logging of core", New Techniques in Sediment Core Analysis, R. G. Rothwell
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We demonstrate a non-contact approach to whole-core and split-core resistivity measurements, imaging a 15 mm-thick, dipping, conductive layer, producing a continuous log of the whole core and enabling the development of a framework to allow representative plugs to be taken, for example. Applications include mapping subtle changes in grain fabric (e.g. grain shape) caused by variable sedimentation rates, for example, as well as the well-known dependencies on porosity and water saturation.
The method operates at relatively low frequencies (i.e. low induction numbers), needing highly sensitive coil pairs to provide resistivity measurements at the desired resolution. A four-coil arrangement of two pairs of transmitter and receiver coils is used to stabilize the measurement. One ‘coil pair’ acts as a control, enabling the effects of local environmental variations, which can be considerable, to be removed from the measurement at source.
Comparing our non-contact approach and independent traditional ‘galvanic’ resistivity measurements indicates that the non-contact measurements are directly proportional to the reciprocal of the sample resistivity (i.e. conductivity). The depth of investigation is discussed in terms of both theory and practical measurements, and the response of the technique to a variety of synthetic ‘structures’ is presented.
We demonstrate the potential of the technique for rapid electrical imaging of core and present a whole-core image of a dipping layer with azimuthal discrimination at a resolution of the order of 10 mm. Consequently, the technique could be used to investigate different depths within the core, in agreement with theoretical predictions.
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New Techniques in Sediment Core Analysis
Marine sediment cores are the fundamental data source for information on seabed character, depositional history and environmental change. They provide raw data for a wide range of research including studies of climate change, palaeoceanography, slope stability, oil exploration, pollution assessment and control, seafloor survey for laying cables, pipelines and construction of seafloor structures. During the last three decades, a varied suite of new technologies have been developed to analyse cores, often non-destructively, to produce high-quality, closely spaced, co-located downcore measurements. These techniques can characterize sediment physical properties, geochemistry and composition in unprecedented detail. Palaeoenvironmentally significant proxies can now be logged at decadal, and in some cases, annual or sub-annual scales, allowing highly detailed insights into climatic history and associated environmental change. These advances have had a profound effect on many aspects of the Earth Sciences and our understanding of the Earth's history.
In this volume, recent advances in analytical and logging technology and their application to the analysis of sediment cores are presented. Developments in providing access to core data and associated datasets, and advances in data mining technology in order to integrate and interpret new and legacy datasets within the wider context of seafloor studies are also discussed.