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Sedimentary and diagenetic environments of the Wildmoor Sandstone Formation (UK): implications for groundwater and contaminant transport, and sand production

By
Jon E. Bouch
Jon E. Bouch
1
British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK jbouch@bgs.ac.uk
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Ed Hough
Ed Hough
1
British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK jbouch@bgs.ac.uk
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Simon J. Kemp
Simon J. Kemp
1
British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK jbouch@bgs.ac.uk
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John A. McKervey
John A. McKervey
1
British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK jbouch@bgs.ac.uk
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Geoffrey M. Williams
Geoffrey M. Williams
1
British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK jbouch@bgs.ac.uk
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Richard B. Greswell
Richard B. Greswell
2
Hydrogeology Research Group, Earth Sciences, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
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Published:
January 01, 2006

Abstract

The Wildmoor Sandstone Formation, proved in three boreholes drilled at Birmingham University, is dominated by fine- to medium-grained sandstones deposited in a braided river environment, within which channel lag, channel fill and abandoned channel facies are recognized. Minor proportions of aeolian sandsheet are present, as are dolocretes, not previously reported in the formation.

The sandstones are feldspathic and lithic arenites, and typically are clay-poor. Early dolomite dominates the diagenetic overprint, and is preferentially developed in channellag deposits. Burial diagenetic effects are minor. Late calcite occurs as a pore-filling phase and within fractures.

Minor fractures and granulation seams are oriented parallel to the NE–SW Birmingham Fault. ‘Conventional’ granulation seams, with comminution of detrital material, and more complex seams containing comminuted dolomite cement with a millimetre-wide halo of dolomite cement are present, the latter implying that the sandstone was dolomitecemented at the time of fracturing.

Several scales of heterogeneity will affect groundwater solute transport. The palaeosols and abandoned channel mudstones may act as barriers to vertical flow at the decimetre scale. Dolomite-cemented channel-lag deposits may act similarly at smaller scales. Granulation seams have permeabilities of two–three orders of magnitude lower than their host sandstones, but their limited occurrence may limit their impact on larger scale flow. Matrix permeability is controlled by grain size and dolomite cement.

The fines in the fine-grained, ripple cross-laminatied sandstones were extensively washed out during coring, and this lithology may be a source of sand yields in some sandstone boreholes. Although no enhancement of particle yields was seen during packer testing, the possibility remains that more comprehensive failure may occur at higher pumping rates.

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Geological Society, London, Special Publications

Fluid Flow and Solute Movement in Sandstones: The Onshore UK Permo-Triassic Red Bed Sequence

R. D. Barker
R. D. Barker
The University of Birmingham, UK
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J. H. Tellam
J. H. Tellam
The University of Birmingham, UK
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Geological Society of London
Volume
263
ISBN electronic:
9781862395114
Publication date:
January 01, 2006

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