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The gaps of volcanic activity and the associated shallow-dipping seismicity in South America can be explained by the consumption of the thick-rooted, buoyant, aseismic Nazca and Juan Fernandez Ridges and perhaps also the Cocos Ridge. The ridges erase the trench where they collide with the overriding continent. The point of collision migrates north or south along the plate boundary, depending on the orientation of the ridge relative to the direction of plate motion. This migration leaves behind a zone in which subduction is temporarily stopped; lack of subduction leads to the cessation of volcanism, perhaps owing to lack of water needed for partial melting.

Although the present aseismic ridges probably consist of basaltic cumulates, there is some indication that earlier-consumed parts of these ridges (or different, previously consumed ridges) contained continental fragments that are now embedded in the western coast of South America.

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