Models of orogenic processes
The influence of pre-existing thrusts on the development of later normal faults was investigated using scaled laboratory analogue models. Experiments consisted of a phase of shortening followed by extension at variable angles of obliquity (a) to the shortening direction. Results suggest that the angle a has a major influence on the surface fault pattern and on the interaction between shortening-related structures and later extensional structures. Three different modes of interactions were identified depending upon the extension kinematics. (1) For orthogonal extension (α = 0°), shortening-related fold and thrust structures strongly influence the development of normal faults: graben structures nucleate within anticlines and the normal faults reactívate thrusts at depth (branching at depth mode of interaction). (2) For highly oblique extension (α > 45°), shortening-related structures exert no influence on normal faults as extension-related steeply-dipping faults (characterized by an oblique component of movement) displace early thrusts (no interaction mode). (3) For intermediate obliquity angles (a = 15°, 30°), an intermediate mode ofinter-action characterizes the experiments, where the no interaction and branching at depth modes coexist in different regions of models. Modelling results can be used to infer regional extension directions as is shown for the Northern Appenines (Italy).
Figures & Tables
Analogue and Numerical Modelling of Crustal-Scale Processes
The crust of the Earth records the deformational processes of the inner Earth and the influence of the overlying atmosphere. The state of the Earth’s crust at any time is therefore the result of internal and external processes, which occur on different time and spatial scales. In recent years important steps forward in the understanding of such complex processes have been made by integrating theory and observations with experimental and computer models. This volume presents state-of-the-art analogue and numerical models of processes that alter the Earth’s crust. It shows the application of models in a broad range of geological problems with careful documentation of the modelling approach used. This volume contains contributions on analogue and numerical sandbox models, models of orogenic processes, models of sedimentary basins, models of surface processes and deformation, and models of faults and fluid flow.