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Analogue benchmarks of shortening and extension experiments

By
Guido Schreurs
Guido Schreurs
Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland (e-mail: schreurs@geo.unibe.ch)
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Susanne J. H. Buiter
Susanne J. H. Buiter
Centre for Geodynamics, Geological Survey of Norway, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
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David Boutelier
David Boutelier
Department of Geology, University of Toronto, 22 Russell St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B1, Canada
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Giacomo Corti
Giacomo Corti
CNR-Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Sezione di Firenze, via G. La Pira 4, 1-50121 Firenze, Italy
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Elisabetta Costa
Elisabetta Costa
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 157/A, 1-43100 Parma, Italy
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Alexander R. Cruden
Alexander R. Cruden
Department of Geology, University of Toronto, 22 Russell St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B1, Canada
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Jean-Marc Daniel
Jean-Marc Daniel
Institut Français du Pétrole, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Préau, F-92500 Rueil Malmaison, France
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Silvan Hoth
Silvan Hoth
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany
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Hemin A. Koyi
Hemin A. Koyi
Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, S-75326 Uppsala, Sweden
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Nina Kukowski
Nina Kukowski
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany
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Jo Lohrmann
Jo Lohrmann
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany
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Antonio Ravaglia
Antonio Ravaglia
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pavia, via Ferrata 1, 1-27100 Pavia, Italy Current address: Midland Valley Exploration Ltd., 14 Park Circus, Glasgow, G3 6AX, UK
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Roy W. Schlische
Roy W. Schlische
Department of Geological Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA
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Martha Oliver Withjack
Martha Oliver Withjack
Department of Geological Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA
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Yasuhiro Yamada
Yasuhiro Yamada
Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-5801 Japan
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Cristian Cavozzi
Cristian Cavozzi
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 157/A, 1-43100 Parma, Italy
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Chiara Del Ventisette
Chiara Del Ventisette
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Firenze, via G. LaPira 4, 1, 1-50121 Firenze, Italy
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Jennifer A. Elder Brady
Jennifer A. Elder Brady
Department of Geological Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA
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Arne Hoffmann-Rothe
Arne Hoffmann-Rothe
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany
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Jean-Marie Mengus
Jean-Marie Mengus
Institut Français du Pétrole, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Préau, F-92500 Rueil Malmaison, France
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Domenico Montanari
Domenico Montanari
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Firenze, via G. LaPira 4, 1, 1-50121 Firenze, Italy
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Faramarz Nilforoushan
Faramarz Nilforoushan
Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, S-75326 Uppsala, Sweden
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Published:
January 01, 2006

Abstract

We report a direct comparison of scaled analogue experiments to test the reproducibility of model results among ten different experimental modelling laboratories. We present results for two experiments: a brittle thrust wedge experiment and a brittle-viscous extension experiment. The experimental set-up, the model construction technique, the viscous material and the base and wall properties were prescribed. However, each laboratory used its own frictional analogue material and experimental apparatus. Comparison of results for the shortening experiment highlights large differences in model evolution that may have resulted from (1) differences in boundary conditions (indenter or basal-pull models), (2) differences in model widths, (3) location of observation (for example, sidewall versus centre of model), (4) material properties, (5) base and sidewall frictional properties, and (6) differences in set-up technique of individual experimenters. Six laboratories carried out the shortening experiment with a mobile wall. The overall evolution of their models is broadly similar, with the development of a thrust wedge characterized by forward thrust propagation and by back thrusting. However, significant variations are observed in spacing between thrusts, their dip angles, number of forward thrusts and back thrusts, and surface slopes. The structural evolution of the brittle-viscous extension experiments is similar to a high degree. Faulting initiates in the brittle layers above the viscous layer in close vicinity to the basal velocity discontinuity. Measurements of fault dip angles and fault spacing vary among laboratories. Comparison of experimental results indicates an encouraging overall agreement in model evolution, but also highlights important variations in the geometry and evolution of the resulting structures that may be induced by differences in modelling materials, model dimensions, experimental set-ups and observation location.

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Contents

Geological Society, London, Special Publications

Analogue and Numerical Modelling of Crustal-Scale Processes

S. J. H. Buiter
S. J. H. Buiter
Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim, Norway
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G. Schreurs
G. Schreurs
University of Bern, Switzerland
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Geological Society of London
Volume
253
ISBN electronic:
9781862395015
Publication date:
January 01, 2006

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