Models of temperate carbonate deposition in Neogene basins in SE Spain: a synthesis
Juan C. Braga, José M. Martín, Christian Betzler, Julio Aguirre, 2006. "Models of temperate carbonate deposition in Neogene basins in SE Spain: a synthesis", Cool-Water Carbonates: Depositional Systems and Palaeoenvironmental Controls, H. M. Pedley, G. Carannante
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Upper Miocene (Tortonian–Messinian) to Lower Pliocene (Zanclean) temperate bioclastic limestones occur in the Betic intermontane basins mixed with diverse proportions of siliciclastics. Components are mostly originally calcitic skeletons of invertebrates (especially bryozoans and bivalves) and coralline algae. Carbonate mud content is usually low and cementation is generally weak. These temperate carbonates formed in ramps. The depositional surface profile and local hydrodynamic conditions in each example controlled the occurrence of diverse facies at similar positions within the ramp. Shallow-water facies are well represented and formed in beaches and backshore lagoons, spits, rocky shores and submarine cliffs. Shoals developed seawards of shore deposits; the relatively quiet environments basinwards of the shoals were the areas of maximal carbonate production (factory facies). The lack of early lithification favoured mobilization of skeletal particles. Waves and currents during storms transported carbonate grains landwards from the factory areas to shoals, spits and beaches. Skeletal grains were also transported downslope along the ramp. Re-deposited carbonates occur within basinal marls in submarine lobes and channels fed by channels cross-cutting and excavating the platform sediments. The absence of hermatypic corals and calcareous green algae in shallow-water deposits suggests cool surface water temperatures during carbonate formation. Large benthic foraminifers and oxygen stable isotope values indicate winter surface water temperatures of 16–17°C.
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Cool-Water Carbonates: Depositional Systems and Palaeoenvironmental Controls
During the past decade, work on cool water carbonates has expanded to become a mainstream research area. Studies on modern and Quaternary deposits will continue to be important; however, there is increasing momentum towards unravelling sediment processes, biota-sediment interactions and diagenetic products in Cenozoic and older cool-water carbonates.
Many contributions in this book document Cenozoic and Quaternary carbonates from landlocked (microtidal) water-bodies. These carbonates display important differences in biota and fabric distributions when compared with world ocean examples. Consequently, the scientific community is now better placed to reinterpret pre-Tertiary carbonates where there is a suspicion that they have developed under microtidal conditions. Some papers in the book provide new approaches to interpreting environmental change within macrotidal regimes and others lay firm foundations for future cool-water carbonate diagenetic research
The aim of the book is to illustrate recent international contributions to cool-water carbonates research, with an emphasis on Neogene and Recent case studies. Contributions are divided into three sections: microtidal carbonates from the Mediterranean realm; macrotidal examples from New Zealand, Australia and Mexico; and early diagenetic fabrics.