Cement stabilization of heavy-metal-containing wastes
Cement has found wide usage in the stabilization of heavy-metal-containing wastes as cement minerals can substantially reduce heavy metal solubility as a result of precipitation, adsorption to the surfaces and incorporation. The solubility of some heavy metal cations is limited by the precipitation of hydroxides, while that of some oxyanions is limited by the formation of Ca salts. Only ions that are sufficiently soluble in basic media will be incorporated in or sorbed to hydrated cement minerals to a significant degree. Heavy metal cations may sorb quite strongly to calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H). The cations diffuse into the C-S-H particles where they are probably sorbed to the silicate chains. Pure phases of oxyanion-substituted ettringite (3CaO·Al2O3·3(CaSO4)·32H2O, an AFt phase) and monosulphate (3CaO·Al2O3·CaSO4·12H2O, an AFm phase) phases and solid solutions with and OH− have been synthesized. Some thermodynamic data are available for the pure phases. For most elements an approximate range of solubility has recently become known. However, it is not possible to predict solubility from the available data.
Figures & Tables
This book provides incentives for further development of sustainable fuel cycles through a novel and interdisciplinary approach to an Earth science-related topic. The main focus is on geochemical concepts in immobilizing, isolating or neutralizing waste derived from energy production and consumption. The book also addresses the issue of using some types of energy-derived waste as alternative raw materials. Moreover, it highlights research on how certain wastes can be used for energy production, an increasingly important aspect of modern integrated waste management strategies. The main objectives are to: (a) identify the most serious environmental problems related to various types of power generation and associated waste accumulation; (b) present strategies, based on natural analogue materials, for the immobilization of toxic and radioactive waste components through mineralogical barriers; (c) discuss modern procedures for reuse of waste or certain waste components; and (d) review the importance of geochemical modelling in describing and predicting the interaction between waste and the environment.