Chemistry and mineralogy of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash
Urs Eggenberger, Kaarina Schenk, Urs Mäder, 2004. "Chemistry and mineralogy of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash", Energy, Waste and the Environment: a Geochemical Perspective, R. Gieré, P. Stille
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A petrographic study was conducted on a suite of bottom ash samples from 28 municipal solid waste incinerators in Switzerland. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of bottom ash from waste combustors with comparable technology show similar major oxide composition. A significant decrease of SiO2 was observed in comparison to the chemical composition of bottom ash from 10 years ago. In contrast to major oxide contents, heavy metal concentrations vary significantly in the bottom ash samples, but without any correlation to the type of input waste or plant operating conditions. Similar types and contents of crystalline phases were observed in all samples. The content of newly formed melilite increases with decreasing bulk Si/Ca ratio, indicating that the type of Ca-Mg-Al-silicates crystallizing during incineration and cooling follow petrogenetic rules. A considerable recycling potential for ferrous and non-ferrous metals was identified in the bottom ash. Optimized mechanical metal separation technologies could reduce the waste volume, heavy metal content, H2 production, and exothermic reactions of the bottom ash in landfills and might be economically viable.
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This book provides incentives for further development of sustainable fuel cycles through a novel and interdisciplinary approach to an Earth science-related topic. The main focus is on geochemical concepts in immobilizing, isolating or neutralizing waste derived from energy production and consumption. The book also addresses the issue of using some types of energy-derived waste as alternative raw materials. Moreover, it highlights research on how certain wastes can be used for energy production, an increasingly important aspect of modern integrated waste management strategies. The main objectives are to: (a) identify the most serious environmental problems related to various types of power generation and associated waste accumulation; (b) present strategies, based on natural analogue materials, for the immobilization of toxic and radioactive waste components through mineralogical barriers; (c) discuss modern procedures for reuse of waste or certain waste components; and (d) review the importance of geochemical modelling in describing and predicting the interaction between waste and the environment.