Injection and trapping of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers
Carbon dioxide (CO2) collected from the waste streams of point sources can be injected into deep geologic formations in order to limit the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Deep saline aquifers provide the largest potential subsurface storage capacity for injected CO2. Once injected, free CO2 can be retained in deep aquifers for long time periods by slow-moving, downward-directed formation waters. Over time, the injected CO2 will dissolve in the formation waters and, through reactions with formation minerals, may be converted to carbonate minerals, resulting in permanent sequestration. Factors that influence the mass of CO2 that can be injected and stored in free or aqueous form, and as mineral phases, are reviewed and applied to estimate storage capacity of the Rose Run Sandstone, a saline aquifer beneath eastern Ohio, USA. It is estimated that 30 years of CO2 emissions from five of Ohio’s largest coal-fired power plants can be injected into the Rose Run Sandstone and, over time, converted to aqueous and, ultimately, mineral phases.
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This book provides incentives for further development of sustainable fuel cycles through a novel and interdisciplinary approach to an Earth science-related topic. The main focus is on geochemical concepts in immobilizing, isolating or neutralizing waste derived from energy production and consumption. The book also addresses the issue of using some types of energy-derived waste as alternative raw materials. Moreover, it highlights research on how certain wastes can be used for energy production, an increasingly important aspect of modern integrated waste management strategies. The main objectives are to: (a) identify the most serious environmental problems related to various types of power generation and associated waste accumulation; (b) present strategies, based on natural analogue materials, for the immobilization of toxic and radioactive waste components through mineralogical barriers; (c) discuss modern procedures for reuse of waste or certain waste components; and (d) review the importance of geochemical modelling in describing and predicting the interaction between waste and the environment.