Geochemical behaviour of host phases for actinides and fission products in crystalline ceramic nuclear waste forms
Gregory R. Lumpkin, Katherine L. Smith, Reto Gieré, C. Terry Williams, 2004. "Geochemical behaviour of host phases for actinides and fission products in crystalline ceramic nuclear waste forms", Energy, Waste and the Environment: a Geochemical Perspective, R. Gieré, P. Stille
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A number of polyphase or single-phase ceramic waste forms have been considered as options for the disposal of nuclear waste in geological repositories. Of critical concern in the scientific evaluation of these materials is their performance in natural systems over long periods of time (e.g., 103 to 106 years). This paper gives an overview of the aqueous durability of the major titanate host phases for actinides (e.g., Th, U, Np, Pu, Cm) and important fission products (e.g., Sr and Cs) in alternative crystalline ceramic waste forms. These host phases are compared with reference to some basic acceptance criteria, including the long-term behaviour determined from studies of natural samples. The available data indicate that zirconolite and pyrochlore are excellent candidate host phases for actinides. These structures exhibit excellent aqueous durability, crystal chemical flexibility, high waste loadings, and well-known processing conditions. Although both pyrochlore and zirconolite become amorphous due to alpha-decay processes, the total volume swelling is only 5–6% and there is no significant effect of radiation damage on aqueous durability. Hollandite also appears to be an excellent candidate host phase for radioactive Cs isotopes. Brannerite and perovskite, on the other hand, are more prone to alteration in aqueous fluids and have a lower degree of chemical flexibility. With the exception of hollandite, many of the properties of these potential host phases have been confirmed through studies of natural samples.
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Energy, Waste and the Environment: a Geochemical Perspective
This book provides incentives for further development of sustainable fuel cycles through a novel and interdisciplinary approach to an Earth science-related topic. The main focus is on geochemical concepts in immobilizing, isolating or neutralizing waste derived from energy production and consumption. The book also addresses the issue of using some types of energy-derived waste as alternative raw materials. Moreover, it highlights research on how certain wastes can be used for energy production, an increasingly important aspect of modern integrated waste management strategies. The main objectives are to: (a) identify the most serious environmental problems related to various types of power generation and associated waste accumulation; (b) present strategies, based on natural analogue materials, for the immobilization of toxic and radioactive waste components through mineralogical barriers; (c) discuss modern procedures for reuse of waste or certain waste components; and (d) review the importance of geochemical modelling in describing and predicting the interaction between waste and the environment.