Problems in interpreting AMS parameters in diamagnetic rocks
The AMS parameters widely used to characterize the magnetic fabric of rocks (L, F, P, T) are not directly applicable to diamagnetic rocks. Namely, there are two principal methods of their definition: (1) from the signed principal susceptibilities or (2) from the absolute values of the principal susceptibilities. The first method results in L, F and P values less than one in contrast to materials whose susceptibility arises from paramagnetism and/or ferromagnetism sensu lato, where they are greater than one by definition. The ratio parameters decrease with increasing intensity of alignment of the magnetic minerals; the calculated shape parameters are, however, correct. The second method gives L, F and P values greater than one; they increase with increasing preferred orientation, however the ellipsoid shape parameters are inverse. The development of AMS parameters with increasing preferred orientation is modelled mathematically for quartzite/evaporite (para- and/or ferromagnetic AMS superimposed on the isotropic diamagnetic matrix) and for marble/limestone (preferred orientation of calcite in a rock). A rational set of AMS parameters is then recommended.
Figures & Tables
Fabric is a ubiquitous and significant feature of geological materials. The processes involved in the formation and deformation of rocks and sediments leave their mark on the orientations of the constituent mineral grains. Petrofabrics thus provide essential keys to understanding the history of geological materials. Magnetic anisotropy is directly related to petrofabric, and has become one of the most rapid, sensitive and widely used tools for its characterization. The relationship between magnetic fabric and petrofabric is complex and depends on various factors including the composition, concentration and grain size of mineral grains. Ongoing research in geological applications is paralleled by studies of the fundamental mineral magnetic phenomena involved.
The papers in this book represent the current state of investigations in magnetic anisotropy studies as a discipline that integrates geological interpretations, mineral fabric development, technical advances and rock-magnetic properties.