Magnetic fabric: methods and applications — an introduction
F. Martín-Hernández, C. M. Lüneburg, C. Aubourg, M. Jackson, 2004. "Magnetic fabric: methods and applications — an introduction", Magnetic Fabric: Methods and Applications, F. Martín-Hernández, C. M. Lüneburg, C. Aubourg, M. Jackson
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Fifty years have now passed since Graham (1954) published his seminal paper advocating the use of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a rapid and sensitive petrofabric tool. During these five decades, Graham’s ‘under-exploited’ method has become standard, and AMS and related techniques are now routinely applied to characterizing fabrics in a wide variety of geological materials (e.g. the GEOREF database lists over 500 journal publications with ‘magnetic anisotropy’ as keywords).
Magnetic anisotropy works as a petrofabric tool because individual grains of most minerals are magnetically anisotropic, i.e. easier to magnetize in certain orientations, which are governed primarily by crystallography and/or grain shape. Magnetic anisotropy at the bulk rock scale results from the preferred crystallographic orientation (PCO) and/or preferred dimensional orientation (PDO) of anisotropic mineral grains. AMS can also result from magnetostatic interactions among closely spaced, strongly magnetic grains that are heterogeneously distributed in a matrix of more weakly magnetic minerals. In either case, magnetic anisotropy is directly related to some aspects of rock fabric, and thus it provides a quick, simple and effective characterization tool, even though the relationship between magnetic fabric and petrofabric is quite complex in detail.
The present collection of papers originated, in part, at a special session on magnetic fabrics at the Joint Assembly of the EGS-AGU-EUG (April 2003) in Nice, which highlighted recent methodological advances, theoretical and experimental studies, and characterization of flow and deformation fabrics in rocks and sediments. A similar session at the AGU Fall Meeting (December 2003) in San