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A provenance study of Neoproterozoic to Lower Cambrian rocks for the entire Puncoviscana Basin was conducted, using 119 samples from 15 different outcrops. Pétrographie data (Qt60–80, F15–35, L5–20, P/F 0.2–0.4, Lv/L = 0) show a composition comparable to foreland-basin successions. Lithoclasts are of metamorphic and metasedimentary origin. Volcanic debris is detected only in the form of sanidine, and volcanic lithoclasts were probably decomposed to form pseudo-matrix. Framework clasts are sub-angular to sub-rounded, and the rocks are poorly sorted. Major element geochemistry shows a moderate to high Chemical Index of Alteration (56–77) and failed to provide coherent provenance and rock classification. Trace element geochemistry suggests a rhyo-dacitic composition overall. Rare earth element patterns are comparable to those of model upper continental crust (UCC), as are concentrations of Nb, Ta, Ti, Th-Sc and Eu/Eu* (0.45–0.87; 95% between 0.4 and 0.7); reworking signatures are not detected. The uniform mineralogical and geochemical composition reflects supra-crustal source(s) for the entire basin, including significant metamorphic rock debris. The Puncoviscana complex is interpreted as a peripheral Pampean foreland basin, fed mainly from an eastern fold-thrust belt, but includes relicts of pre- and syn-collisional magmatic activity as well. A source area of UCC composition to the west is represented by the Arequipa block.

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