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The Periadriatic fault system (PFS) is an array of late orogenic faults (35-15 Ma) in the retro-wedge of the Alpine orogen that accommodated dextral transpression during oblique indentation by the southern Alpine crust. Decoupling along the leading edges of the southern Alpine indenter occurred where inherited lithological and rheological contrasts were accentuated by lateral thermal gradients during emplacement of the warm orogenic retro-wedge next to the cold indenter. In contrast, decoupling within the core and retro-wedge of the orogen occurred in a network of folds and mylonitic faults. In the Eastern Alps, this network comprises conjugate sets of upright, constrictional folds, strike-slip faults and low-angle normal faults that accommodated nearly coaxial NNE-SSW shortening and E-W extensional exhumation of the Tauern thermal dome. The dextral shear component of oblique convergence was taken up by a discrete, brittle fault parallel to the indenter surface. In the Central and Western Alps, a steep mylonitic backthrust, upright folds, and low-angle normal faults effected transpressional exhumation of the Lepontine thermal dome. Mylonitic thrusting and dextral strike-slip shearing along the steep indenter surface are transitional along strike to low-angle normal faults that accommodated extension at the western termination of the PFS. The areal distribution of poles to mylonitic foliation and stretching lineation of these networked structures is related to the local shape and orientation of the southern Alpine indenter surface, supporting the interpretation of this surface as the macroscopic shearing plane for all mylonitic segments of the PFS. We propose that mylonitic faults nucleate as viscous instabilities induced by cooling, or more often, by folding and progressive rotation of pre-existing foliations into orientations that are optimal for simple shearing parallel to the eigenvectors of flow. The mechanical anisotropy of the viscous continental crust makes it a preferred site of decoupling and weakening. Networking of folds and mylonitic fault zones allow the viscous crust to maintain strain compatibility between the stronger brittle crust and upper mantle, while transmitting plate forces through the lithosphere. Decoupling within the continental lithosphere is therefore governed by the symmetry and kinematics of strain partitioning at, and below, the brittle-to-viscous transition.

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